The purpose with this blog is to expose the claim of modern Islamic apologists that the Qur'an is miracolous in its prediction of what they claim resembles modern science.

Sunday, 10 January 2010

Did the Qur'anic authors borrow information of science from external sources?

A common claim propagated by Muslims in the recent era is the claim of modern scientific discoveries being predicted in the Qur'an, which then obviously begs the question: how could a nomad such as Muhammad, who cut of from the world and aquainted only with the dessert and the camels possess such knowledge?

Let me first say, that I have done extensive study on must of these so-called scientific predictions in the Qur'an and my conclusion remains that the Qur'an reveals the knowledge of Muhammad's era only; hence the claim that the Qur'an is miracolously predicting in the seventh century what science recently has discovered is not a sustainable claim.

In this short thread I intend merely to assess the claim that Muhammad was so cut off and remote from the outside world, its knowledge and science as Muslims want us to believe. Or is it plausible that such knowledge was available and obvious to the prophet of Islam via those individuals to whom he was aquainted?

Muhammad and the two claims

Pre-Islamic Arabs are usually portrayed as simple nomads, strongly acquainted with dessert-life and particularly poetry; yet lacking every existing insight into the thought and science of its present era.[1] According to Iabal the scientific advancements that emerged with Islam were caused primarily by the appearance and study of the Qur’an; which later laid the foundation for Islam’s interaction with the world-powers and their knowledge.[2]

Based on this, two assertions run frequently: primarily that Muhammad would have no access to nor possess any knowledge of the science promoted by his contemporaries; secondly, that the cause behind the science promoted by the Qur’an must therefore be of divine revelatory origin.

This proposition has in recent years been particularly promoted by Maurice Bucaille, who writes:

How could a man living fourteen hundred years ago have made corrections to the existing description to such an extent that he eliminated scientifically inaccurate material and, on his own initiative, made statements that science has been able to verify only in the present day? This hypothesis is completely untenable’.[3]

Hence to assess this claim, we need to ask whether Muhammad was divinely inspired and uninformed, or whether he possessed access to the scientific postulates of his day. Furthermore, we need to ask whether the scientific claims of the Qur’an are consistent with the claims of modern discoveries.

Muhammad a man of knowledge

O’Leary points out that there are elements of definite Greek scientific origin, which made its way to the Arabs by a transmission of which route and date are uncertain.[4] This suggests that early Arabs might have possessed a slight insight into the ideas of the Greeks, even prior to the era of Islamic conquests. According to early sources Muhammad possessed knowledge and pursued it, as evident from Tabari’s narration: ‘Muhammad said:

Man’s glance at knowledge for an hour is better for him than prayer for sixty years”. He therefore commanded all believers to seek knowledge and to go to China in search of knowledge, if required’.[5]

Muhammad certainly possessed insight into the celestial world and their orbits; al-Tabari writes:

The Prophet [Mohammed] replied: “Ali, they are five stars: Jupiter (al-birjis), Saturn (zuhal), Mercury (utarid), Mars (Bahram), and Venus (al-zuhrah). These five stars rise and run like the sun and the moon and race with them together. All the other stars are suspended from heaven as lamps are from mosques,… (al-Tabari vol.1 p.235-236).”’[6]

If therefore, Muhammad was acquainted only with the impoverished life of northern Arabia and its cultural exclusiveness and remoteness, from where did such insight derive? Is it plausible that Muhammad’s environment and social circle was not as scientifically impoverished as we are made to believe? Is it possible that Mecca and dessert cities were indeed impacted by external cultures?

Here we first need to consider the situation and history of ancient Arabia.

Prior to Muhammad Arabia was divided into the South, the Sabaens, also referred to as the Yemenites, and the North, referred to as Arabs.

The South was a populated and sedentary community, living in cities, while the North was inhospitable, nomadic and isolated; hence we know that Arabia was not solemnly remote and isolated.

Yet were there any interactions between Arabs in the south and north and other factions that might have enriched or established knowledge among the dessert people? The Sabaenas, ran two trade routes, an ocean based route between India and Africa, and the land-based, particularly toward Syria and Egypt.[7]

There is evidence that literary interaction between the South-Arabs, the Greeks and the Indians took place even centuries before Islam. Since 1300 BC, the South Arabs left inscriptions in the North, what the nomads referred to as musnad. Interestingly, the musnad alphabet was effected by Greek language, which reveals the impact of Hellenism even in the south prior to appearance of Islam.

Furthermore since alters to Arabic deities have been found in Delos we know that the Arabs actually traded in the Greek world.[8]

For these routes to operate intermediate centres were needed; these were the oasis alongside the land-route between Yemen and Syria of which one was Mecca.[9] This confirms that the trades required among the Arabs a certain acquaintance with Greek and other languages, which became the communication of administration.[10] Hence the influence of trade and their international influence and the stations, certainly imply that Greek knowledge was spreading around.

Yet there were also other means of international interaction, such as the intervals of Northern dominance.

At one point the South weakened and the Northern tribes took the advantage to invade extensive parts of the South Syrian territory.[11] Even though no signs are evident of the Greek culture passing to the Arabs here, yet because Arab states were formed a long the eastern border of Syria and left untouched,[12] it is plausible that centuries of proximity prior to Muhammad’s era caused ideas to pass on. Further escalation between the political powers of the Byzantine in the North, the Persians in the East and the rulers of the south caused North Arabia to be caught in between.[13]

In 450 AD the community in the South suddenly declines, its proliferation vanishes, which causes massive migration to the North. These immigrants strengthened the oasis and their communities and establish intellectual centres among the people of the dessert.[14]

A third influence was the dispersion of various Christian sects and Judaism, which also impacted the dessert community.[15] The Christian Nestorians reached deep into the Arabian dessert with their message, as far as to Wadi I-Qura, near Medina. Beside the Nestorians, there were other Christian factions who expanded their influence; such as the Monophysites whose centre in Arabia was Najran.[16]

These sects were connected to Christian factions to which science was greatly valued; who possessed schools which emphasised and propagated the Christian faith, including philosophy and science. Their contribution to translating literature e.g. into Syrian language and their knowledge was not only confined to monasteries but were transmitted to the communities.[17]

The extensive influence impacted even scientific centres such as Jundishpur in Persia, in which global science was accumulated and dispersed into all direction;[18] plausibly into Arabia.
We need to consider that these factions of Christianity were proliferating in Arabia prior and in Muhammad’s era.

We know also that Muhammad visited Syria at least once.[19] Arthur Jeffery suggest that a range of religious vocabulary in the Qur’an, such as Qur’an, Isa and Injil derives from the Syrian Christian faction. If this is true it reveals strong, intellectual interaction and borrowing, which Jeffery seems to suggest.[20]

In the early era of Islam a group of Muhammad’s followers settled in the Christian Abyssinia, which led to interaction between Muhammad, the earliest Muslims and the ruling body of Abyssinia.[21]

Furthermore, O’Leary points out the possibility of runaway Ethiopian slaves who joined the Muslims, who interestingly might be the ones who were suspected to help Muhammad composing the Qur’an.[22] The Bukhari indeed refers to a Christian convert to Islam, who helped narrating Muhammad revelations. Initially he left Islam and informed about his contribution to fabricate the Qur’an with Muhammad; Bukhari informs us that Allah caused him to die.[23]

Greek scientific ideas would also have been passed on to Muhammad by the Jewish community; in fact some of the scientific ideas of the Qur’an, both terminology and chronology, resemble the writings of the Talmud significantly.[24]

A strong notion to this influence upon the author of the Qur’an does not only derive from the presence of the Jewish community, to which Muhammad interacted, but early Jewish converts to Islam. One of these Jewish converts was Abdullah ibn Salim who lived in Medina and was a companion of Muhammad. Qadir, points out that Salim was acquainted with cosmology and even ‘spread his knowledge among the Muslims’.[25]

Based on this information; Muhammad would be acquainted with Christians and Jews who were aware of Greek science; particularly being based in Mecca and then Medina.

Additionally, he might presumably possessed insight into the information passed on through centuries of trading, invasions, political interactions and simply information being passed on by travellers, settlers and immigrants.
[1] Hottinger points out that the Greek philosophy and science was virtually absent from Arabia as fruitful contact between the two worldview was still nonexistent; the Arabic hold upon the Greek heritage was to arrive in the Abbasid era (Arnold Hottinger, The Arabs, Their History, Culture and Place in the Modern World, London: Thames and Hudson, 1963: 80); see also Muzaffar Iqbal, Islam and Science, England, Hampshire, Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2002:6-9; he states that the rapid invasions of nations brought the Muslims in contact with the existent scientific centres of the world

[2] Iqbal, 2002: 1; Iqbal refers to the two advancements as the intellectual (the Qur’an) and the social revolutions (Islam’s expansion).

[3] Maurice Bucaille, The Bible, the Qur’an and Science, Pakistan, Karachi: Idaratul Qur’an, Wa-Uloom – Il Islamia: 1975: 148; here Bucaille emphatically states that Qur’anic science is unique and distinct from any former religion and philosophy

[4] De Lacy O’ Leary: How Greek Science passed to the Arabs, part one, chapter one: Introduction, 1979[5] C.A. Qadir, Philosophy and Science in the Islamic World, London and New York: Routledge 1990: 15-6; Qadircomments on this Hadith: ‘In the eyes of the Prophet, knowledge ranked higher than worship.’

[6] al-Tabari vol.1 p.235-236 (Astronomy and the Qur’an, 2005

[7] Richard Hooker, World Civilizations: Islam: Pre-Islamic Arabic culture, 1996(

[8] D.M. Dunlop, Arab Civilization to AD 1500, Longman, Librairie du Liban, Beirut, 1971: 6-7; musnad meansuncertain, perhaps, set up; which implies their inability to read it; the Delos alters existed already in 2nd century BCand reveals virtually centuries of trade and interaction between these civilisations. These alters were built to Wadd anArabic deity, mentioned in the Qur’an (Sura 71: 23).

[9] Dunlop, 1971: 10; Dunlop states that Meccah was prosperious by contemporary standards, but less significant thane.g. southern cities such Ma’rib and Ma’in; hence Muhammad was used to city life, not the nomad life.

[10] Qadir, 1990: 34; Greek, Syriac and Persian were the official languages used for administration even beyond theinauguration of Islam. It was only much later that Muslims demanded Arabic to supplement it with Arabic.

[11] The oasis might have been dominated by the south at least until the sudden decline of political power in Mesopotamiaand South Arabia in the first millennium BC, which not only gave the north Arabians control over these centres butalso mobilized the tribes to expand their control beyond their territory. Later as the Ancient Seleucids Syria turnedpolitically and militarily weak, the northern Arabs took their advantage and occupied its territories all way north toPetra and toward the south to Najran; initially they collided with Roman militia (65 BC), who arrived mainly to takeprovincial control over Syria; this caused the Arabs to retreat back south (Richard Hooker, World Civilizations:Islam: Pre-Islamic Arabic culture, 1996; see also O’ Leary, Chapter II: Hellenism in Asia: (1) Hellenization of Syria,1979

[12] O’ Leary, Chapter II: Hellenism in Asia: (1) Hellenization of Syria, 1979

[13] Richard Hooker, World Civilizations: Islam: Pre-Islamic Arabic culture, 1996

[14] Dunlop, 1971: 7-8; Dunlop refers to the centres of Lakhmids (al-Hira) and Ghassanids (Syria)

[15] Richard Hooker, World Civilizations: Islam: Pre-Islamic Arabic culture, 1996

[16] O’ Leary mentions the city of Hira which had become a centre of great significance; it was the most influential Arabcity located by the Persian border. At the time of Muhammad, the king of Hira, Nu’man embraced the Nestorian typeof Christian faith; see O’Leary, Chapter 3 (3) The Nestorian Schism, 1979) (http://evans-/ (

[17] See Qadir, 1990: 31-33 & Iqbal, 2002: 172

[18] Dunlop, 1971: 219 (see also Iqbal, 2002: 39-41): The Persian Jundishapur, is also of importance here as it became acentre in which Christian and Zoroastrian schools of thought as well as Greek, Syrian, Persian, Hindu and Jewish,culture and science was accumulated, and its written works translated into various languages. When the school ofEdesse was closed down in the middle of the fifth century, the students fled to e.g. Nisibis in Persia, these impactedJurundishapur and the community. Initially in 531-79 AD, ‘Jundishapur was the principal intellectual centre of theworld.’ While no direct connection to Muhammad’s environment has been recorded, it is highly likely due to itsinternational impact and its proximity, that the intellectuals of Northern Arabia and Christians communities andmonasteries gained a hold on its insight.

[19] Dunlop, 1971: 11; this particular journey occurred in Muhammad’s early years, while he was still married to Khadija

[20] Arthur Jeffery Y, The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qur’an, Oriental Institute Baroda, 1938; 71 (Isa); 219 (Qur’an); 233(Injil). Jeffery assess hundreds Qur’anic terms and traces them back to their Syrian and Aramaic origins. The entirebook can be read on

[21] Martin Lings, Muhammad, His life based on the earliest Sources, London Unwin Paperbacks, 1986: 80-4; theaccounts describes the early Muslim connection with king Negus in Abyssinia (Ethiopia)

[22] O’Leary, Chapter 4: The Monophysites: 4 Organization of the Monophysite Church, 1979 (http://evans-/ An additional probability of influence upon the environment ofMuhammad was the arrival of run-away Ethiopian slaves. The Ethiopian invasion of Arabia approximately AD 570,led to the Arabian trend to obtain Ethiopian slaves as mercenaries; several of these later escaped to Medina and joinedMuhammad. Some scholars have suggested that these were the secret teachers (Sura 22: 12), who derived there byviolence and fraud (Sura 25: 5), with foreign tongues (Sura 16: 105) from whom it was suspected that Muhammadobtained much of his Qur’anic information

[23] Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 56, Number 814: Narrated Anas, Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Translator: M.Muhsin Khan (

[24] The Qur’an makes reference to seven heavens and an equal number of earths (65: 12); this number follows in linewith the Talmud; see Aboth D ’Rabbi Nathan, chapter XXXVII, A, Cohen (ed.) The minor Tractates of the Talmud,Massektoth Ketannot, vol.2, London:The Soncino Press, 165, 185. For further information on the influence of Greek philosophy on the Jewish communitysee Stead Christopher, 1998, in (ed) Craig, Edward, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Volume 5, London andNew York, Routledge 1998: 819 & Zeller Eduard, Outlines of the History of Greek Philosophy, USA, Cleveland andNew York, Meridian Books/The World Publishing Company, 1963: 277-84

[25] Qadir, 1990: 27; for more information see The Encyclopedia of Islam, New EDN, Vol.1 A-B, edited by an editorialcommittee consisting of H.A.R. Gibb, J. H. Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal, J. Schacht, assisted by S.M. Stern asSecretary General (pp.1-320). B. Lewis, Ch. Pellat and J Schacht, assisted by C. Dumont And R. M. Savory aseditorial secretaries (pp.321-1359), London, Luzac & Co, 1960: 52


  1. Just skimming through very quickly, already I see you referring to Tabari anyway, which is not an authentic hadith and we know has stuff which gathers info from anywhere. So it is not befitting that you use Tabari, but rather the Authentic hadith.

    It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah bin Mas'ood (may Allah be pleased with him), who observed:
    "I asked Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) which deed was the best." He (the Holy Prophet) replied: 'The Prayer at its appointed hour.' (Sahih Muslim: 120)
    So yeah, prayer is more important than seeking 'scientific' knowledge as you are trying to portray.

    And I haven't even looked at your works properly, just a super, super quick skim through.

    I understand you will be delivering from your own bias.

  2. (you were trying to portray that seeking 'scientific' knowledge was more important than prayer for example)* trying to indicate a 'deceptive apologetic motif by Muhammad pbuh.

  3. I must say that even if we find some science to be correct in the Quran we must also look at the incorrect science as well. Also it should be pointed out that even the devil himself can get certain science correct. We must look at the Quran as a whole only then do we find that it doesn't stand up to scrutiny. The Bible on the other hand does not only scientifically but prophetically as well.

  4. Brian,

    You cannot blame me for your early sources being so inconsistent. The fact is that Tabari, who was a contemporary of Bukhari (correct me if I am wrong here) transmitted this saying.

    Muslims tend to pick and reject from Bukhari and Tabari and the rest of these sources as it fits their arguments. When a Muslim has a problem with the Qur'an and Bukhari does not help he tends to turn to other sources even Tabari.

    As far as I know, there was no method of isnad neither any isnad existing in Muhammad's time. This was a later invention, and I would say it places both Bukhari and Tabari on the same level.

    That is of course unless you can post a manuscript list of the isnad that is not dated later than 50 years after Muhammed.

    I do however, encourage to read my post carefully before you condemn it as being the outcome of my own biasad attitude only. There are a number of arguments against Qur'anic science that I have rejected based upon a very objective study.

  5. And to the other Brian, welcome to by blog bro. Feel free to comment at any time.

    May God bless both of you

  6. Ok, can you name the Greek philosopher Muhammad(saw) interacted with? Can you produce a chapter like the Quran?

  7. “Greek philosophers guessed a lot of scientific details correctly–they anticipated atoms, other solar systems, evolution, the laws of thermodynamics, the rain cycle, you name it. That doesn’t make them supernaturally prescient…” I agree so when Darwin proposed the theory of evolution I suppose he was plagiarizing/borrowing from the Greeks? You need to re-asses your criticism"

    Again produce a chapter like the Quran.

  8. You write
    "Greek scientific ideas would also have been passed on to Muhammad by the Jewish community; in fact some of the scientific ideas of the Qur’an, both terminology and chronology, resemble the writings of the Talmud significantly/"

    My response:
    Babylonian Talmud & The Qur'an

    There are only two places in Talmud where the story of Abraham and idols is mentioned:

    1. When the wicked Nimrod cast our father Abraham into the fiery furnace, Gabriel said to the Holy One, blessed be He: "Sovereign of the Universe! Let me go down, cool it, and the deliver that righteous man from the fiery furnace.'" [Pesachim 118a]

    2. Let Nimrod come and testify that Abraham did not (consent to) worship idols; [Avaodah Zarah 3a]

    This is all that one reads in the Babylonian Talmud. The only similarity that one can see is that Abraham was saved from the fire, but there is no mention of the events leading unto the climax of the fire.

    What is interesting is that there is no agreement between these "strikingly similar" sources concerning whether Abraham fled or was he put in to the fire.

    Both Catena Severi and Jacob of Edessa's writings say that Terah and his family fled from Ur of Chaldees.

    On the other hand, the Babylonian Talmud and Jerome's writings say that Abraham was put into the fire but was saved. Furthermore, what was it that Abraham refuse to worship? Was it the fire according to Jerome's version or was it the idols as mentioned in Catena Severi, the writings of Jacob of Edessa's and the Babylonian Talmud etc.?

    In dept refutation to this absurd claim can be found here:

  9. You mention
    "The Bukhari indeed refers to a Christian convert to Islam, who helped narrating Muhammad revelations. Initially he left Islam and informed about his contribution to fabricate the Qur’an with Muhammad; Bukhari informs us that Allah caused him to die.["

    Lets take a look at the hadith:

    Narrated Anas:

    There was a Christian who embraced Islam and read Surat-al-Baqara and Al-Imran, and he used to write (the revelations) for the Prophet. Later on he returned to Christianity again and he used to say: "Muhammad knows nothing but what I have written for him." Then Allah caused him to die, and the people buried him, but in the morning they saw that the earth had thrown his body out. They said, "This is the act of Muhammad and his companions. They dug the grave of our companion and took his body out of it because he had run away from them." They again dug the grave deeply for him, but in the morning they again saw that the earth had thrown his body out. They said, "This is an act of Muhammad and his companions. They dug the grave of our companion and threw his body outside it, for he had run away from them." They dug the grave for him as deep as they could, but in the morning they again saw that the earth had thrown his body out. So they believed that what had befallen him was not done by human beings and had to leave him thrown (on the ground).

    First of all He does not help Narrating, That is just an absurd claim. Second of all you refute yourself saying that he helped Muhammad saw to compose the Quran because the hadith translates he only wrote the revelations. Also the Quran was orally transmitted and Muhammad(saw) obviously memorized the Surat-al-Baqara and Al-Imran. Third he tries to take the credit when he returns to the christians and spreads his lies. Then he suffers a terrible faith. And if Muhammad(saw) fabricated the quran then i challenge you to produce a chapter like it.

  10. Even classical polemicists such as J.M Rodwell and Alan Jones admit that the Prophet (P) was indeed illiterate.

    You write:
    These sects were connected to Christian factions to which science was greatly valued; who possessed schools which emphasised and propagated the Christian faith, including philosophy and science. Their contribution to translating literature e.g. into Syrian language and their knowledge was not only confined to monasteries but were transmitted to the communities."

    First point:

    Many scientific mistakes in the Bible are not copied over, such as World's creation, Noah Ark, World is Flat etc. If he copied over, how does he know which one is wrong and not to copy?

    Muhammad recites the Qur'an for 22 years.
    Whenever new verses are revealed, he immediately memorizes them and instructs the companions either to memorize or write down. Since he recites it, there is no 'editorial process', which means whatever being said cannot be taken back. Imagine the level of consistency that he has to maintain.

    With over 600+ pages of verses over such long period, any mistake will be pointed out immediately by non-believers who are always denying him.

    He didn't get any help.
    Since he is the first Muslim, then nobody was there to help him. No-one was around him for the whole 22 years to assist him. Qur'an is in perfect Arabic language, so whoever taught him must be of Arabic mother-tongue with excellent knowledge in everything. So no proof of him getting outside help.

    No, he didn't copy from Bible nor Torah.
    Bible in arabic is non-existent at that time. In fact, he cannot read, no library, Internet or Y!A. In fact the content of Qur'an is obvious opposite with Bible, such as Jesus as God.

  11. I'm actually surprised you would even use Arthur Jeffery as your reference.

    You mention:
    Arthur Jeffery suggest that a range of religious vocabulary in the Qur’an, such as Qur’an, Isa and Injil derives from the Syrian Christian faction. If this is true it reveals strong, intellectual interaction and borrowing, which Jeffery seems to suggest.[20]

    Here is an article exposing Jeffery & Missionaries. You'd have to be desperate to use him as a reference.

  12. You should do more research.

    This story originated from the book of Al-Tabari. Here is what Al-Tabari said about his own book and writings:

    "Let him who examines this book of mine know that I have relied, as regards everything I mention therein which I stipulate to be described by me, solely upon what has been transmitted to me by way of reports which I cite therein and traditions which I ascribe to their narrators, to the exclusion of what may be apprehended by rational argument or deduced by the human mind, except in very few cases. This is because knowledge of the reports of men of the past and of contemporaneous views of men of the present do not reach the one who has not witnessed them nor lived in their times except through the accounts of reporters and the transmission of transmitters, to the exclusion of rational deduction and mental inference. Hence, if I mention in this book a report about some men of the past, which the reader of listener finds objectionable or worthy of censure because he can see no aspect of truth nor any factual substance therein, let him know that this is not to be attributed to us but to those who transmitted it to us and we have merely passed this on as it has been passed on to us."

  13. Conclusions:

    A poor attempt to convince a reader that the Quran borrowed from other cultures. Quran is error free.

    Now if i may ask several questions on christianity?

    The Gospel of Matthew:

    "The unknown author, whom we shall continue to call Matthew for the sake of convenience, drew no only up the Gospel according to Mark but upon a large body of material (principally, sayings of Jesus) not found in Mk that corresponds, sometimes exactly, to material found also in the Gospel according to Luke. (The New American Bible, ISBN: 978-0-529-06484-4, Page 1008)"

    "As for the place where the gospel was composed, a plausible suggestion is that it was Antioch, the capital of the Roman province of Syria. (The New American Bible, ISBN: 978-0-529-06484-4, Page 1009)"

    So we clearly see, both the author or authors and the place of composition of the "Gospel of Matthew" are unknown.

    Who were the real authors of the bible??

  14. Conclusion: *edited*
    A poor and FAILED attempt to convince a reader that the Quran borrowed from other cultures. Quran is error free.

    Back to my questions on christianity

    The Gospel of Mark:

    Note: This gospel is the oldest and supposedly the most original one in the New Testament!

    "Although the book is anonymous, apart from the ancient heading "According to Mark" in manuscripts, it has traditionally been assigned to John Mark, in whose mother's house (at Jerusalem) Christians assembled. (The New American Bible, ISBN: 978-0-529-06484-4, Page 1064)"

    "Although there is no direct internal evidence of authorship, it was the unanimous testimony of the early church that this Gospel was written by John Mark. (From the NIV Bible Commentary [1], page 1488)"
    # We certainly do not know whether Mark was the author or not! The quote clearly states "no direct internal evidence of authorship". Also, the so-called unanimous testimony of the early church:

    - Does not prove that the author was Mark.

    - Nor does it prove that other people did not alter and modify the book, especially when the book was written at least 40-50 years after Christ. We don't even know if Mark even wrote the book.

    "Traditionally, the gospel is said to have been written shortly before A.D. 70 in Rome, at a time of impending persecution and when destruction loomed over Jerusalem. (The New American Bible, ISBN: 978-0-529-06484-4, Page 1064)"

    "Serious doubts exists as to whether these verses belong to the Gospel of Mark. They are absent from important early manuscripts and display certain peculiarities of vocabulary, style and theological content that are unlike the rest of Mark. His Gospel probably ended at 16:8, or its original ending has been lost. (From the NIV Bible Foot Notes [1], page 1528)"

    "This verse, which reads, "But if you do not forgive, neither will your heavenly Father forgive your transgressions," is omitted in the best manuscripts. (The New American Bible, ISBN: 978-0-529-06484-4, Page 1081)"

    "This passage, termed the Longer Ending to the Marcan gospel by comparison with a much briefer conclusion found in some less important manuscripts, has traditionally been accepted as a canonical part of the gospel and was defined as such by the Council of Trent. Early citations of it by the Fathers indicate that it was composed by the second century, although vocabulary and style indicate that it was written by someone other than Mark. (The New American Bible, ISBN: 978-0-529-06484-4, Page 1088)"

    So, in reality, we don't really know whether Mark was the sole author of this Gospel or not, nor do we know when and where the "gospel" was even written. And since The New Testament wasn't even documented on paper until 150-300 years (depending on what Christian you talk to) after Jesus, then how are we to know for sure that the current "Gospel of Mark" wasn't written by some pro of Mark?

  15. Well just read for yourself:

    Also, I have seen the debates between answeringchristiany and answeringislam. I have also seen their true faces exposed. I have witnessed their foul mouth and read the exchange of emails.

  16. I will probably never check this blog So if you have rebuttals or answers to the questions i posed on christianity, then send me an email, you should be able to see it. All your blogs are the same, poorly written. A note:

    That's what you demented Christians are presenting against Islam, the true religion of the historical Jesus. That Christian justification of Trinity is actually a misguided attempt to prove a fallacy which is not grounded in factual history but in ancient mythology and Hellenistic philosophy. A far cry from the sublime teachings of the Jesus of history that Christians have continued to overlook for the past 2000 years. It's not merely a simple matter of freedom of speech but credible scholarly analysis that exposes the fragile roots of orthodox Christianity. Read their books before you make up your mind. You're just exposing your gross ignorance with your claim that Muslims cannot do a critical analysis of the Qur'an. We have been doing it for centuries way before Biblical criticism became a norm in the Western academia. Just check out this website on this subject: The works of your Ali Sina, Spencer, et. al are nothing more than a pathetic attempt at Christian apologia that aims to prop up their misguided claims at the expense of credible, historical truth. Unlike you, I have read their works and I am not impressed with their bare-faced lies and manipulation of facts to suit their fabricated man-made dogma called Christianity. Just read for yourself the scholarly works of Dr. Wilson, Dr. Vermes and most popularly Dr. Bart D. Ehrman's Misquoting Jesus and Jesus: Interrupted and you will understand the point I am trying to make here. Try to come out from your dark cocoon of blissful ignorance and fabricated fallacies. The vast majority of Christians are living in a state of spiritual blindness and loss except for a growing minority who are blessed with the true faith of the historical Jesus (i.e. Islam).

  17. I guess I will deal with some of your rebuttals seperately and in details, look out for it.

  18. Seems like this blog has had some impact on our muslim friend, he seems at bit...well shaken, lol!

  19. Do not bother wasting my time. Your not going to write a rebuttal, your just going to go on websites you think are "scholarly"(ali sina who has made a fool of himself) and copy and paste some points that have already been refuted several times. This blog is nothing new, I have debated many christians "missionaries" who fail to address the criticism and corruption of the bible and they make a fool of themselves trying to disprove the Quran.

  20. I have responded to the scientific response of Hello here:

  21. I have debated many christians "missionaries" who fail to address the criticism and corruption of the bible and they make a fool of themselves trying to disprove the Quran.
    please identify yourself first.making a claim of debating missionaries doesn't prove anything,anyone can make such claims,the quran itself is so foolish that no-one is needed to disprove it...
    again if you have the daring then identify yourself,or maybe you are some taqqia Muslim trying to glorify himself by debating missionaries in your own dreams.

  22. Just read for yourself the scholarly works of Dr. Wilson, Dr. Vermes and most popularly Dr. Bart D. Ehrman's Misquoting Jesus and Jesus: Interrupted and you will understand the point I am trying to make here.
    i guess you haven't read the refutation to Bart erhman by Dan Wallace,and again dint you see his debate with DR James white where he was badly defeated,DR White wrote books way before erhman wrote on the same matter.
    Do you think reading few books will strengthen your case,your nothing better than all those inconsistent Muslims around the world inspired by pagan prophet Mohammad,even DR naik agrees he was Prophecised in Pagan scriptures.

  23. I liked your blog and the conversation that followed. My only problem is the taunting (at least what I saw as taunting). Let our enemies do the taunting and let us reveal the TRUTH in LOVE.
    1 Peter 3:15
    But in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and respect,